Early Civilizations: 4000-1000 BCE: World History Encyclopedia


Authored Thematic and Topical Introductions:<br />
Emerging Civilizations 4000-1000 BCE; Environment and Population; Ancient Chronology; The Environmental Framework; Climate Change and Natural Disasters; Important Crops and Crop Products, 4000-1000 BCE; Food Production; Pastoralism; Urbanization and Demographic Trends; Religion and the Environment; Society and Culture; The Family; Social Classes; Ethnic Identities; Law; Gender; Education; Early Writing; Architecture and Urban Planning; Art; Fashion; Death and Dying; Migration and Travel; Strangers in a Strange Land – Ancient Travelers; Migration Mysteries; Movement and Material Culture; The Exodus; Kassites; The Movements of Cultures in Bronze Age Europe; Avenues and Routes of Travel; Modes of Transportation; Thinking About Foreign Lands; Politics and Statecraft; City-States and Chiefdoms; The Development of States; Secondary States; The Origins of Kingship; The Dynasties of Egypt; The Mesopotamian States; Political Entities in China; The Arts and Ideologies of Governance; Economics and Trade; From Hunting and Gathering to Farming – The Development of Social Complexity; Mining and Resource Acquisition; Ancient Workshops and the Organization of Production; Taxation and Tribute; The Myth of the Temple Economy; Currencies, Trading Media, and the Problem of Money; The Old Assyrian Trade Network; Regional Exchange Networks; War and Diplomacy; Experiences of War Around the World; Egypt and Its Enemies; Thought and Religion; Creation Myths and Cosmology; Ancient Deities; Atenism; Temple Architecture and Practices; Diviners, Shamans, and Other Specialists of the Unseen World; Ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean Literature; Early Works of the Hebrew Bible; Vedic Religion; Science and Technology; Subsistence Technologies; Seals, Stamps, and Gems; Engineering and Construction; The Natural World, the Human Body, and Medicine.<br />
Authored Entries:<br />
The Environment of Ancient India; The Ghaggar-Hakra River; Mesoamerican Geography; Tierra Fría, Tierra Templada, and Tierra Caliente; The Drying of the Sahara; What Evidence Exists for Reconstructing the Desertification of the Sahara?; The Eruption of Thera; Did the Eruption of Thera Destroy the Lost Civilization of Atlantis?; Climate Change at the End of the Late Bronze Age – Volcanic Eruptions in Iceland and Other Indicators of Climate Change; Mistaking Volcanic Eruptions for Eclipses; Millet and Sorghum; Sesame; Cacao; Palm Oil; Palm Oil as Biodiesel – Environmental Solution or Problem?; Manioc; Identifying Manioc Use through Experimental Archaeology; The First Wine and the Origins of Viticulture; Wine – Medicine or Poison?; Soma; Hymns to Soma; African Agriculture – On the Savannah and in the Forest; Malaria; Changing Subsistence Practices in the Indian Subcontinent; The Harappans and Cattle; Peruvian Fishing; Shell Middens and the Sambaquí Tradition in Brazil; Herding in Southwest Kenya; Saharan Pastoralism; Giraffe Herders?; The Andronovo Culture and the Timber Grave Cultures; Yurts; The Bactria-Margian Archaeological Complex; Were the BMAC Indo-Aryans?; The Rise of Civilized Disease Pools – William H. McNeil’s Thesis; Identifying Disease Archaeologically; Childbirth in the Near East; The Abydos Birth Brick; Children in Egypt; The Egyptian Wet Nurse; The Relationship between Biblical and Cuneiform Law; The Goring Ox; Gender in the Indus Valley; Gender and Burial at Harappa; Homosexuality and Transgender in the Ancient Near East; The Tomb of the Two Brothers at Saqqara; Egyptian Games; Senet; Nubian Cities – Areika and Kerma; Near Eastern Tells; Why Are Ancient Sites Buried?; Monumental Architecture in the Indus Valley; Urban Planning in the Indus Valley; The Homogeneity of Indus Urban Design; Shang Cities; European Houses in the Copper and Bronze Age; How Archaeologists Reconstruct Ancient European Houses; South American Urban Planning at Real Alto; The Wankarani Complex of Bolivia; Poverty Point in the Mississippi Valley; The Rock Art of the Tassili n’ Ajjer; The Egyptian Hoax; The Art of Ancient Europe; Recording the Petroglyphs at Val Camonica; The Origins of Silk; Peruvian Textiles; The Kerma Cemetery; Burials in Neolithic China; The Shang Cemetery at Xibeigang; The Tomb of Fu Hao at Anyang; The Settlement of the Gangetic Plain and the Indo-Aryan Invasion Theory; Scholarly Controversies – Racism, Nationalism, and Indian Languages; Where Did the Zhou Come from?; The Li – Proto-Zhou Material Culture; The Uruk Expansion; Beveled Rim Bowls; The Settlement of the Caribbean; The Ciboney; The Corded Ware Phenomenon; What Is an Archaeological Assemblage?; Ships, Boats, and Watercraft; The Perils of Experimental Archaeology – The Oman Boat Project; Wheeled Transportation; The First Image of the Wheeled Wagon; Chiefdoms in Mauritania; Dhar Tichitt; The Question of Leadership in the Indus Valley; The Priest-King; The Rise of the Egyptian State; The Origins of the Chinese State; Complex Chiefdoms and States in Nubia; Scholarly Controversy – Did the Idea of “the Pharaoh” Originate in Nubia?; Early Iran; Mesopotamian Booty from Susa; The Elamites; Memphis; The Xia Dynasty and the City of Erlitou; Shang Governance; The Lineage System; Western Zhou Governance; The Duke of Zhou’s Thoughts on Governance; Wu and the Rise of the Zhou; The Duke of Zhou; Debating Ancient Imperialism; The Kintampo Complex of West Africa; What Is a Stone Rasp?; The Egyptian Predynastic Period; Predynastic Chronology; The Neolithic in Nubia; The Neolithic in China; Changing Conceptions of the Chinese Neolithic; From Fishing to Farming – The Introduction of Rice to Korea; Horticulture and Complexity in North America; Horticulture or Agriculture – How to Tell Archaeologically; The Development of Sedentary Society in Mesoamerica; The Valdivia Culture of Ecuador; Scholarly Controversies – Japanese Voyages to Ecuador?; The Growth of in the Andes during the Late Archaic Period; The Parana-Pampean Tradition; Stone Quarrying in Egypt and the Near East; Deir el-Medina – The Workers’ Village; Forestry (Silviculture); Woodworking in Egypt; Copper Mining in Southeast Asia; Scholarly Controversy – The Origins of Bronze in Southeast Asia; The Egyptian “Satire of the Trades”; Ancient Workshops and Manufacturing – The Domestic Mode of Production; Drudgery; The Manufacture of Fine Stone Objects and Jewelry; “Ancient Knock off” – Harappa Stoneware; The First Glass; Faience; Shang Taxation and Tribute; The Economy of Mesopotamian Temples; Superman Temple Receipts; The Reaction against the Temple Economy; The Mesopotamian Ration System; Economic Temples, Not Temple Economies; The Temple Complexes at Uruk; Using Weights and Measurements in Trade; Ancient Weights, Ancient Artistry; Amber Trade in Europe; The Site of Frattesina; Hoards; The Hajdúsámson Hoard; Credit and Debt in the Ancient Near East; A Record of Debts from Ras ibn Hani; Iran – Between the Persian Gulf and Bactria; Harappa Trade; Trade and Transportation in the Indus Valley; Bronze Age Fortifications in Syria-Palestine; Keeping People in a City – What Went on at a City?; The Zhou Conquest of the Shang and the Consolidation of Empire; Akhenaten; Talatats; Aten Worship; Moses and Akhenaten; Life and Worship at Amarna; Psalm 104 and the “Hymn to the Aten”; Shang Religious Practices – Burial Pits, Human Sacrifice, and Ancestor Veneration; The Sacrificial Pits at Sanxingdui; European Metallurgy; The Three Age System; The Plow; Ancient Plow Marks; The Australian Small Tool Tradition; Regional Ceramic Traditions; Important Ceramic Terminology; The Container Revolution in North America; Gourds.