Computational and learning theory models propose that behavioral control reflects value that is both cached (computed and stored during previous experience) and inferred (estimated on the fly on the basis of knowledge of the causal structure of the environment). The latter is thought to depend on the orbitofrontal cortex. Yet some accounts propose that the orbitofrontal cortex contributes to behavior by signaling "economic" value, regardless of the associative basis of the information. We found that the orbitofrontal cortex is critical for both value-based behavior and learning when value must be inferred but not when a cached value is sufficient. The orbitofrontal cortex is thus fundamental for accessing model-based representations of the environment to compute value rather than for signaling value per se.
ones, Joshua LEsber, Guillem RMcDannald, Michael AGruber, Aaron JHernandez, AlexMirenzi, AaronSchoenbaum, GeoffreyF32 DA031517/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United StatesF32-031517/PHS HHS/United StatesR01 DA015718/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United StatesR01-DA015718/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United StatesResearch Support, N.I.H., ExtramuralResearch Support, N.I.H., IntramuralResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tUnited StatesScience (New York, N.Y.)Science. 2012 Nov 16;338(6109):953-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1227489.