This paper measures and assesses the variation in total factor productivity (TFP) growth among Canadian provinces in crops and livestock production over the period 1940–2009. It also determines if
agricultural productivity growth in Canada has recently slowed down as indicated by earlier studies. The paper uses the stochastic frontier approach that incorporates inefficiency to decompose TFP growth into technical change (TC), scale effect (SE), and technical efficiency change. The results indicate that productivity changes were mainly driven by TCs for crops, while the productivity changes in livestock was mainly driven by SEs and technical progress. Though change in technical efficiency is mainly positive (except for New Brunswick and Nova Scotia), its contribution to productivity growth was very little for the provinces.We also found that over the entire period, the productivity growth rates for the crop subsector are on average higher for the Prairie provinces than for the Eastern and Atlantic provinces. On the other hand, the productivity growth rates in the livestock subsector are on average
higher in the Eastern and Atlantic provinces than in the Prairie region with the exception of Manitoba. Finally, we found that though there is some evidence of a recent decline in productivity growth for the
crops subsector, there is no such evidence in the livestock subsector.